Varicose veins is irreversible changes in the venous walls of blood vessels, leading to serious consequences. People who are at risk (and it is most often women), it is necessary to monitor the status of the leg, so that when the first symptoms start treatment. In the initial stage of varicose veins can completely get rid of the disease or at least prevent its development.
Symptoms and diagnosis of the disease
For many years, varicose veins have ceased to be the fate of the old ladies, which is spreading with alarming rapidity, affecting women under 30 years of age and young men. This makes the medical community look for new methods and conduct active preventive work.
Heredity, excess weight, pregnancy, a sedentary job or vice versa, is associated with a long-term static load on the legs to create favorable conditions for the development of pathology. Therefore, it is important that you know and don't miss the first symptoms. Stage varicose veins are manifested in different ways, and at the beginning of his signs are mistaken for normal fatigue, it does not give a lot of importance. What we need to be paying attention to:
- legs start to get tired quickly in the evening, this feeling is enhanced;
- on fatigue, with a feeling of weight and sometimes night cramps in the calves;
- thighs appear thin vascular web, does not stick out above the skin and is painless;
- possible redness of the skin near the ankles and hips.
Even a superficial examination gives the doctor a reason to suspect the disease and sends the patient to review. If you do not take any action (compression), the signs begin to get worse:
- vascular mesh increases and becomes convex;
- there is pain in the affected leg;
- pastosity goes into pronounced swelling;
- veins dilate, elongate and begin to explicitly appear on the surface of the feet.
In more extreme cases, all of the above symptoms and signs itself with itching, dryness of the skin and change its color. The veins may appear on the surface of the legs have large knots, swelling does not disappear even in the morning. Increase the risk for blood clots and venous ulcers.
Early diagnosis of varicose veins is not only the establishment of the stage of the disease, but also their causes. Its removal makes the treatment more successful, and sometimes allows you to get rid of the disease without using traumatic methods.
Classification of varicose veins
In clinical practice there are several types of classification of diseases. Systematization of its manifestations, which are important for the development of standards of care, as well as for the efficient exchange of international best practices in the field of phlebology.
International classification allows to assess the condition of the patient in points. In our country is mainly used in the implementation of scientific research and to determine the degree of disability of the patient. In the daily practice of the commonly used classification of disease stages.
Stage varicose veins — classification Saveliev
The Russian doctors use a classification Savelyev V. S., which stood at the origin of the domestic phlebology. Describes the stage of varicose veins depending on the clinical picture of the disease. He analyzed the processes of formation thrombi and changes of indicators of blood coagulation in varicose veins of the lower extremities, develop and implement new methods of diagnosis and treatment of trophic lesions. Saul'ev, introduced by the practice of gradation stages of varicose veins of the lower extremities depending on the extent of the damage.
In the initial phase – compensation
The compensation stage is occurrence of diseases, which takes place without the visible signs. At this stage the market has not yet broken, but the veins begin to experience increased load. Venous blood is pushed towards the heart (bottom-up) with the shrinking of calf muscles and tone of blood vessels. If the musculo-venous pump begins to fail, the blood stagnates in the veins.
Tired legs, occurrence of spider veins, heaviness and slight swelling in the evening – the first symptoms and the initial degree of varicose veins. And this is the perfect time to visit a doctor and be tested. In the stage of compensation, one can get rid of pathology. The duration of these stages of disease – from several months to several years.
The second stage of sub compensation
Unfortunately, many patients seek medical advice only in the second stage of the disease, when the pathological process is already running with full capacity. The symptoms present at the stage of compensation, is pronounced and causes the patient considerable discomfort. The second stage of varicose veins still leaves a chance to overcome the disease, if it is time to begin treatment.
Phase is characterized by constant pain, swelling, which disappear after a long vacation, and unsightly veins. The Sub payment is the beginning of the disorder of venous valves. In a healthy condition do not allow the venous blood flow down, lock each segment of the container for your petals. The constant pressure of blood on the walls of blood vessels, the veins dilate and the valves no longer able to reliably block the lumen in the vein. This leads to the back flow of blood and its stagnation.
The third phase – decompensation
If you leave the early symptoms and signs without supervision, the pathology moves to the next stage of decompensation. In addition, this process can occur quickly. decompensation is the varicose veins are 3 levels that require surgical treatment. Blood stasis causes the accumulation of fluid in the tissues and their trophic changes:
- appear from the everlasting swelling, compressing the surrounding blood vessels, including the arteries transport oxygen and nutrients to tissues;
- the skin begins to dry, change the color and the serbs;
- lost hair to stop growing nails;
- formed ulcers, which inevitably becomes infected and causes inflammation of the blood vessels;
- damaged valves of deep veins;
- varicose veins complicated by thrombophlebitis, there is a risk of deep vein thrombosis.
That the skin may appear a trophic ulcer, the original show changes in the skin. The deterioration of the strength of the cells leads to increased pigmentation – the skin becomes brown, then red-crimson and glossy. A small seal under the skin of the predecessors of the wound. Early treatment can stop and even prevent the process of dying fabrics.
The fourth and subsequent
Varicose veins the last stage is extreme stage of chronic venous insufficiency. The enlarged veins merge and appear on the surface of the lower limbs in clusters. Leg ulcers of the capture of much of the area is the defect in the myocardium. The fourth and the subsequent stages of varicose veins threaten the patient's life and require urgent treatment.
Treatment at each stage
Any degree of varicose veins includes their own methods of treatment. The primary stage, as a rule, treated conservatively.
One of the main ways to treat early stages of varicose veins is compression – use an elastic bandage or a special knitted fabric with different levels of pressure. This method allows you to maintain the tone of the venous walls and muscles. Compression socks or stockings (or elastic bandage), which should be worn during the day, you can remove them just before bedtime.
At the same time, the doctor will prescribe systemic and topical medications. Are the protection of vessels, making them flexible and less brittle, prevent the inflammation of their walls. In addition, creams and gels relieve symptoms such as pain, swelling and night cramps. As well as therapy venotonicks must be systematic.
An important element of treatment is the proper organization of the mode of operation, when it is connected with the constant presence in a standing or seated position. Patients are advised to take breaks in indicating the load on the calf muscles. This can be specific exercises or a short walk to the "spraying" of blood.
The initial level of varicose veins includes the use of folk remedies, but only after consultation with the attending physician and only as a Supplement to the basic treatment.
In the second phase of the development of varicose veins conservative treatment will not be enough. Toning means to add medications, blood thinning and prevent blood clots.
Sub compensation is characterized by the appearance of the swollen veins on the surface of the skin. This is almost a painless and effective way to remove the affected veins from the blood flow. In the patient's vein is injected with a special substance, the gum of the vessel and making it completely impassable. The procedure is only performed on small areas of the veins.
Modern phlebology offers other effective methods of laser coagulation and radiofrequency ablation. In this case, Vienna is excreted from the blood circulation with the ligaments with the use of the laser beam, or wave radiation, which warms the walls of the vessel. The use of invasive methods of treatment is possible only in subcutaneous veins. Prevent their use in acute thrombophlebitis, thrombosis and advanced stages of the varicose veins.
Not canceled and the treatment with elastic compression. In the stage of sub compensation, disrupted venous valves. Compression allows you to partially restore their function and prevent swelling and stagnation.
Doctors recommend that you use an elastic bandage, as the compression garment less effective. Their advantages are:
- the effect of the compression is faster;
- it can be used in varicose eczema or ulcers;
- if necessary, they can be mitigated or on the contrary to increase the pressure;
- commitments in the case of specific indications can be used around the clock for seven days.
Uncomfortable elastic bandage is that it is less aesthetic and its introduction, it is necessary to visit your doctor.
If left untreated varicose veins in the stage of decompensation, created a danger not only to other vital organs and systems, but also the life of the patient. The disease is complicated by thrombophlebitis – inflammation of vessel walls and formation of blood clots.
This phase of the disease, which is possible only surgical treatment, therapy has no efficacy. Formed trophic ulcers of large size. In the necrotic process may lead to gangrene and the only way to save the patient's life is amputation.
Surgical treatment involves removing the diseased section of the vein. The operation resulted in blood flow is redistributed according to the other healthy veins. In the postoperative period of re-medication and therapy are used with compression.
Why is it important to diagnose the disease at an early stage
Varicose veins basic level, respond well to the treatment. The possibilities of modern medicine allow to make a diagnosis in the initial stage of the disease, when there is violation of blood circulation and vessels are in good condition.
The diagnosis of early stage of varicose veins are to remember, that people who are overweight, pregnant women and women in menopause. At risk are people with a flatfoot, a fan of high heels and those who are exposed to occupational risk. For them, the opportunity to maintain healthy legs and avoid serious complications and costly treatment.
The consequences of lack of proper treatment
Varicose veins this is not a harmless disease, and not a cosmetic defect, which can safely live to a ripe old age. This is a serious disease that can be life-threatening if left without treatment. Complications of varicose veins:
- inflammation and thrombosis of superficial veins (thrombophlebitis), which is imbued with gangrene of the lower limbs;
- deep vein thrombosis, as in the case of detachment of a blood clot with pulmonary embolism and death;
- trophic ulcer – long-term treatment of deep tissue damage, which gave the strong suffering of the patient.
Violations of trophies cause thinning of the skin and venous walls, that even a small injury can cause bleeding. Treatment of varicose veins is difficult and time-consuming. However, the consistent implementation of the requirements of the doctor gives good results and saves health.
And a few secrets...
Have you ever tried to get rid of varicose veins on your own? Judging by the fact that you're reading this article – the victory was not on your side. And of course you know what is:
- again and again to watch the second series, spider veins on the legs
- Wake up in the morning with the idea that you would like to wear, to conceal veins
- suffer every night from gravity, schedules, swelling or buzzing in the legs
- constantly the introduction of a cocktail of hope, for a long wait and disappointment from the failed new treatment
Maybe You're even thinking about surgery? This is understandable, since the disease, the risk and nature of complications, the development along with the disease is different. Varicose veins can lead to such terrible consequences, such as: bleeding from the varices; the necrotic and trophic processes; with the introduction of the infection into the bloodstream, sepsis and even death...the weight in the legs, varicose veins, cramps, legs, pain... All these symptoms are familiar to you from first-hand.